Calculation Reference
Piping Design
Piping Design Codes

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) provides guidelines for designing and constructing piping systems, including miter bends. Miter bends are formed by joining several straight pipe sections cut at specific angles to form a bend. ASME B31.1 (Power Piping) and ASME B31.3 (Process Piping) provide guidance on the fabrication and installation of miter bends. Below are some of the key considerations and calculations related to miter bends:

  1. Number of miters (n): The number of miters (pipe sections) should be such that the included angle between two consecutive pipe sections is less than or equal to 22.5 degrees for optimal performance.

  2. Miter bend angle (θ): The total bend angle (θ) can be determined by the desired change in direction of the pipe.

  3. Miter cut angle (α): The angle at which each pipe section is cut can be calculated as follows:

α = θ / (2 * n)


  • α = miter cut angle (degrees)
  • θ = total bend angle (degrees)
  • n = number of miters
  1. Bend radius: ASME B31.1 and B31.3 require that the bend radius (R) should be at least three times the nominal pipe diameter (D) for miter bends with up to three miters, and at least five times the nominal pipe diameter for bends with more than three miters.

R ≥ 3D (for n ≤ 3) R ≥ 5D (for n > 3)

  1. Miter bend fabrication: Each pipe section must be cut at the calculated miter cut angle (α), and the sections must be aligned and welded together to form the bend. It is crucial to ensure that the alignment and welding process is executed with precision to avoid any leaks or stress concentrations in the piping system.

  2. Stress analysis: ASME B31.1 and B31.3 require stress analysis to be performed on miter bends to ensure that the bend meets the allowable stress limits. Stress analysis can be performed using analytical methods, such as the flexibility factor approach, or using computational tools, such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA).

Keep in mind that the above calculations and guidelines are based on ASME B31.1 and B31.3, and specific requirements may vary depending on the application, fluid properties, and operating conditions. Always consult the relevant ASME codes and standards for detailed information and requirements.

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01 May 2013
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Comments: 2
anhen1990 3 years ago
Not yet download
JohnDoyle[Admin] 10 years ago
I have extended your XLC Pro subscription by way of thanks.